6 Ensure environmental sustainability
Where are we?
Since its inception, National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has worked towards incorporating principles of sustainable development into laws, policies and strategies of the country. 18 sets of laws, regulations, guidelines and procedures are developed with regards to environmental issues. Afghanistan is party to around 9 Multilateral Environmental Agreement and 3 protocols and the official process of Conventions on Migratory Species and Nagoya Protocol have been finalized are currently being proposed to council of minister for approval. Identifying and enlisting of at least 138 endangered-species (3% of the native species), initiation of a Presidential Decree to protect endangered animals and importantly attempting to incorporate environmental curriculum into education curricula of the country are some of NEPA’s attempts toward incorporation of principles of sustainable development into laws, policies, and strategies of Afghanistan.
Although slow in pace, but proportion of land area covered by forests is increasing through efforts led by the government and the international donors by planting of new trees. As of 2012, 2% of Afghanistan’s area is covered by forests. Ratio of areas protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area is increasing as well, and NEPA in cooperation with Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Live-stocks (MAIL) has developed a system (National Protected Areas System Plan) to keep track of these areas.
Unfortunately, Carbon dioxide emissions have increased. However, consumption of ozone-depleting substances has decreased significantly with a shift from use of solid fuels to natural gas and electricity.
Proportion of people having access to an improved water source and improved sanitation has increased slightly; however, with respect to targets for these indicators, achievements are very marginal in this area and the progress is precariously behind the schedule.
Unfortunately, slum dwelling has increased as well. While the main reason for slum dwelling is said to be poverty and economic misfortunes, but in Afghanistan context, the issue is largely affected by Internally Displaced Persons or widely known as IDPs induced by conflicts in the country. Most of the IDPs have taken refuge in slums of major cities including the capital which thus has increased the number of slum dwellers. They have also settled in barren lands in outskirts of the cities therefore creating new slums.
UNDP's work in Afghanistan
A forest that blankets a mountain along the Kishim River in Tagab district of northeastern Badakhshan province and where wild animals, rare plants and a varietymore
The 8 Millennium Development Goals
- 1 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
- 2 Achieve universal primary education
- 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
- 4 Reduce child mortality
- 5 Improve maternal health
- 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8 Develop a global partnership for development
Targets for MDG7
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
- Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
- Proportion of land area covered by forest and proportion of species threatened with extinction
- CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)
- Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
- Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
- Proportion of total water resources used
- Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
- Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
- Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
- Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
- Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020
- Proportion of urban population living in slums